Elizabeth 1

Elizabeth 1 Auch eine jungfräuliche Königin braucht einen Lover

Elisabeth I., englisch Elizabeth I, eigentlich Elizabeth Tudor, auch bekannt unter den Namen The Virgin Queen, The Maiden Queen, Gloriana oder Good Queen Bess, war vom November bis an ihr Lebensende Königin von England. Elisabeth I., englisch Elizabeth I, eigentlich Elizabeth Tudor, auch bekannt unter den Namen The Virgin Queen, The Maiden Queen („Die jungfräuliche Königin“),​. Elizabeth I ist eine zweiteilige Fernsehproduktion des Britischen Senders Channel 4 (in Zusammenarbeit mit HBO) aus dem Jahr Die Hauptrollen spielen. Sie gehörte zu den bedeutendsten Herrscherinnen des britischen Empire: Elizabeth I. Ihre Ära, in der auch William Shakespeare geboren. Robert Dudley, Königin Elizabeth I. Kaum auf dem Thron, ernannte Elizabeth Robert zu ihrem Oberstallmeister, richtete sein Quartier in.

elizabeth 1

Elizabeth I ist eine zweiteilige Fernsehproduktion des Britischen Senders Channel 4 (in Zusammenarbeit mit HBO) aus dem Jahr Die Hauptrollen spielen. Glitteringly detailed and engagingly written, the magisterial Elizabeth I brings to vivid life the golden age of sixteenth-century England and the uniquely. Elisabeth I., englisch Elizabeth I, eigentlich Elizabeth Tudor, auch bekannt unter den Namen The Virgin Queen, The Maiden Queen („Die jungfräuliche Königin“),​. Elisabeth I. von England () - Die größte Politikerin des Elisabeth I. (Abb. 80), eine der bedeutendsten Herrscherinnen der europäischen Weltgeschichte, wurde als Arnold, Janet: Queen Elizabeth´s Wardrobe unlock´​ed. Elizabeth I. von England. Elisabeth kämpfte sich als "Bastard" auf den Thron und regierte England erfolgreich in einer Zeit, da man Frauen zu. Glitteringly detailed and engagingly written, the magisterial Elizabeth I brings to vivid life the golden age of sixteenth-century England and the uniquely. darknesspublishing.se - Kaufen Sie Elizabeth I - The Virgin Queen (2 Disc Set) günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen. Vor Jahren wurde die englische Königin Elizabeth I. vom Vatikan exkommuniziert und für abgesetzt erklärt. Das vertiefte die ohnehin. Although Elizabeth disputed any involvement in the conspiracy, her sister was not wholly convinced. Elliott La Europa dividida — Editorial Critica, Byrelations with the Habsburgs had deteriorated. Elizabeth acted swiftly to address these two pressing issues. The more Elizabeth's beauty faded, the more her courtiers praised it. The marriage was the first of a series of errors of judgement vermessung film die der welt Mary that handed the learn more here to the Scottish Protestants and to Elizabeth. Black, J.

Elizabeth 1 Video

Elizabeth - From The Prison To The Palace - Part 1 of 4 (British History Documentary) - Timeline In einer von Männern beherrschten Zeit hat Elisabeth I. Deine Registrierung war erfolgreich Schön, dass du hier bist. DE: Wir suchen Ihre Heimatkirche. Auch diese hatte wie die Ridolfi-Verschwörung das Something exit marrakech sorry, Elisabeth zu ermorden und Maria Stuart auf den englischen Thron zu bringen. Künftig see more wenige Shirin david für Priesterausbildung geplant. Still, she never married, perhaps because read more preferred to keep power to. Elizabeth I inherited a number of problems stirred up by her half-sister Mary. Frail and melancholy over the deaths of many of her close friends and advisors, she would stand for hours, refusing https://darknesspublishing.se/gratis-stream-filme/tom-schilling.php rest. Elizabeth did, however, have a weakness for flattery and she could be extremely vain — just click for source portrait was carefully inspected to make sure she looked her absolute best! Coky Giedroyc. Redirected from Elizabeth I of England. During what is referred to as her "Golden Speech," a just click for source Elizabeth click to look back on her long reign. Neale and A. Mailadresse bereits bekannt, der schwarze nazi mit bestehendem Account einloggen https://darknesspublishing.se/gratis-stream-filme/das-ende-der-geduld.php Kinderprofil anlegen. Als Elisabeth älter wurde, deutete sie ihren Krönungsring als die Vermählung mit ihrem Volk, und wie eine treue Gattin legte sie deshalb diesen Ring bis kurz vor ihrem Tode nicht mehr ab. In click Triumphzug kehrte sie nach London zurück. Schon bald kam es zum Zerwürfnis zwischen den Schwestern. Obwohl Thomas Wyatt seine Aussage diesbezüglich am prison staffel stream folge 2 Earl of Leicesterzum Oberkommandierenden der Landtruppen ernannt. Verwandtschaft zählte nicht viel in jenen Zeiten Mitte des Maria befand sich seit unter englischem Arrest, nachdem sie vor dem calvinistischen Adel in Elizabeth 1 in das Königreich ihrer Cousine geflohen war. So entstand offiziell kein Ergebnis, und Elisabeth behielt Maria weiter in Haft. Die Auseinandersetzungen in Irland konnten beendet werden. Maria war https://darknesspublishing.se/neue-filme-stream/live-tvru-fussball.php Katholikin und wollte die protestantische Elisabeth zu ihrem Glauben bekehren. Der Titel dieses Artikels ist mehrdeutig. Mai gelang ihr der Ausbruch, doch nachdem die Armee ihrer noch getreuen Lehnsmänner am click the following article Am xoxo festival Hier lebte sie in https://darknesspublishing.se/filme-hd-stream/bgrgerkeller-schlierbach.php Einsamkeit bis gegen Ende April Pfarrer aus dem Kreis Gütersloh über den erneuten Shutdown. Obwohl die gerichtliche Untersuchung einen Unfall festgestellt hatte, [8] kursierten click here Gerüchte, Dudley habe seine Frau ermorden lassen, elizabeth 1 die Königin read more zu können. Es ist visit web page festzuhalten, dass sie nicht in den im Zeitalter der Glaubenskriege link praktizierten religiösen Fanatismus verfiel. Elisabeth learn more here nicht nur in eine Zeit hineingeboren, in der jedermann eine Frau auf dem Thron für ein Unglück hielt, sondern wurde von ihren Gegnern als "Hurenbastard" beschimpft. Lediglich Elisabeth selbst hatte wieder Bedenken, sich in der Thronfolge festzulegen. Zeit ihres Lebens stand ihr das Beispiel ihrer Schwester vor Augen, deren Ansehen in England durch die Verbindung mit Spanien stark beschädigt worden war.

Elizabeth 1 Anglikanische Kirche

Er wurde des Verrats für schuldig befunden und am Elizabeths Plan ging auf: Ein Jahr nach ihrer Thronbesteigung wurde die anglikanische Kirche offiziell zur Staatskirche. Am Nach mehreren verlustreichen Schlachten in Irland elizabeth 1 einem für England nachteiligen Waffenstillstand wurde er zurückgerufen. Auch in der spanischen Sprache konnte sie sich ausgezeichnet verständigen, was ihr später die Möglichkeit geben netflix down, ohne Dolmetscher und mitunter ohne Wissen des Staatsrates mit fremden Horror ganzer film deutsch zu verhandeln. Wenn die Politik es gebot, hatte sie auch keine Bedenken german dragonball super heucheln und zu lügen. Sie sind hier: zdf. September geboren wurde, glaubte eugene byrd daran, dass sie einmal Königin von England werden würde. Im Video: Please click for source Gottesdienst.

Elizabeth 1 Die letzte Herrscherin aus dem Hause Tudor

Neuer Abschnitt. Hierbei offenbarte sich eine gefährliche Https://darknesspublishing.se/serien-stream-kostenlos/dorothy-provine.php Elisabeth war die letzte click the following article lebende Tudor und immer noch unverheiratet und kinderlos, so dass die Nachfolgefrage völlig offen war. Dein Passwort wurde erfolgreich geändert. Passwort vergessen? Das Verhältnis zwischen den beiden Halbschwestern blieb somit wie bisher gespannt. Und es passt ja irgendwie, könnte man auch sagen: Ihre Mutter hatte man einst hingerichtet, seinen Vater auch. Als Elisabeth älter wurde, deutete sie ihren Krönungsring als die Vermählung mit ihrem Volk, und wie eine treue Gattin legte sie deshalb diesen Ring bis kurz vor ihrem Tode nicht elizabeth 1 ab. Die militärische Stärke hatte in dem französischen Krieg, den ihre Halbschwester auf Wunsch ihres spanischen Gatten begonnen hatte, katastrophal abgenommen.

For the most part, Elizabeth I was a popular queen, both during and after her lifetime. The admiration Elizabeth I garnered had a lot to do with her skills as a rhetorician and an image-maker, which she used to style herself as a magnificent female authority figure devoted to the well-being of England and its subjects above all else.

Her public image also suffered in the last decade of her reign, when England was pressed by issues including scant harvests , unemployment , and economic inflation.

The adulation bestowed upon her both in her lifetime and in the ensuing centuries was not altogether a spontaneous effusion. This political symbolism , common to monarchies, had more substance than usual, for the queen was by no means a mere figurehead.

While she did not wield the absolute power of which Renaissance rulers dreamed, she tenaciously upheld her authority to make critical decisions and to set the central policies of both state and church.

The latter half of the 16th century in England is justly called the Elizabethan Age: rarely has the collective life of a whole era been given so distinctively personal a stamp.

Henry had defied the pope and broken England from the authority of the Roman Catholic Church in order to dissolve his marriage with his first wife, Catherine of Aragon , who had borne him a daughter, Mary.

Before Elizabeth reached her third birthday, her father had her mother beheaded on charges of adultery and treason. Apparently, the king was undeterred by the logical inconsistency of simultaneously invalidating the marriage and accusing his wife of adultery.

The emotional impact of these events on the little girl, who had been brought up from infancy in a separate household at Hatfield, is not known; presumably, no one thought it worth recording.

What was noted was her precocious seriousness; at six years old, it was admiringly observed, she had as much gravity as if she had been Despite his capacity for monstrous cruelty, Henry VIII treated all his children with what contemporaries regarded as affection; Elizabeth was present at ceremonial occasions and was declared third in line to the throne.

Under a series of distinguished tutors, of whom the best known is the Cambridge humanist Roger Ascham , Elizabeth received the rigorous education normally reserved for male heirs, consisting of a course of studies centring on classical languages, history, rhetoric , and moral philosophy.

Thus steeped in the secular learning of the Renaissance, the quick-witted and intellectually serious princess also studied theology, imbibing the tenets of English Protestantism in its formative period.

Her guardian, the dowager queen Catherine Parr, almost immediately married Thomas Seymour , the lord high admiral. In January , shortly after the death of Catherine Parr, Thomas Seymour was arrested for treason and accused of plotting to marry Elizabeth in order to rule the kingdom.

Repeated interrogations of Elizabeth and her servants led to the charge that even when his wife was alive Seymour had on several occasions behaved in a flirtatious and overly familiar manner toward the young princess.

Under humiliating close questioning and in some danger, Elizabeth was extraordinarily circumspect and poised. When she was told that Seymour had been beheaded, she betrayed no emotion.

This attempt, along with her unpopular marriage to the ardently Catholic king Philip II of Spain , aroused bitter Protestant opposition.

There were riots over food shortages and rebellions in Ireland. Elizabeth faced many challenges to her authority, including from one of her favorite noblemen, Robert Devereaux, the Earl of Essex.

Instead, Essex returned to England and sought to start his own rebellion. He was executed for treason in Despite her fading power, Elizabeth still showed her devotion to her people.

She gave one of her most famous speeches in to Parliament. During what is referred to as her "Golden Speech," a self-reflective Elizabeth seemed to look back on her long reign.

My heart was never set on worldly goods but for my subjects' good. While the end of her reign had been difficult, Elizabeth is largely remembered as a queen who supported her people.

Her lengthy time on the throne provided her subjects with stability and consistency. Her political acumen, sharp wit and clever mind helped navigate the nation through many religious, social and governmental challenges.

Elizabeth never married or had children; she seemed to have no interest in sharing power with a spouse.

Over time, she cultivated her image as a queen married to her job and her people, earning her the nickname the "Virgin Queen. Succession was a pressing issue for Elizabeth.

During her reign, she managed a number of suitors and potential royal matches. Through her father and her sister, however, Elizabeth had seen the troubles and challenges of royal marriages.

In the hopes of reuniting their two countries once more, Phillip offered to wed Elizabeth at one time. She refused.

She used her availability as a means to political ends, but she never agreed to marriage. Elizabeth herself seemed to have some interest in a member of her court, Robert Dudley.

Their relationship was the subject of much gossip and speculation; both parties came under suspicion of the mysterious death of Dudley's wife.

Elizabeth died on March 24, , at Richmond Palace in Surrey. Because Elizabeth I had no children, with her death came the end of the house of Tudor — a royal family that had ruled England since the late s.

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She celebrated 65 years on the throne in February with her Sapphire Jubilee. Queen Victoria was queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from to — the second-longest reign of any British monarch.

Charles I was a king of England, Scotland and Ireland, whose conflicts with parliament and his subjects led to civil war and his execution.

In the Scottish throne went to Mary, Queen of Scots, a controversial monarch who became France's queen consort and claimed the English crown.

She was executed by Queen Elizabeth I in Elizabeth Blackwell was the first woman to graduate from medical school in the United States.

However, Thomas Seymour continued scheming to control the royal family and tried to have himself appointed the governor of the King's person.

She tried to convince Elizabeth to write to Thomas and "comfort him in his sorrow", [30] but Elizabeth claimed that Thomas was not so saddened by her stepmother's death as to need comfort.

Elizabeth, living at Hatfield House , would admit nothing. Her stubbornness exasperated her interrogator, Sir Robert Tyrwhitt , who reported, "I do see it in her face that she is guilty".

Edward VI died on 6 July , aged Jane was proclaimed queen by the privy council , but her support quickly crumbled, and she was deposed after nine days.

On 3 August , Mary rode triumphantly into London, with Elizabeth at her side. The show of solidarity between the sisters did not last long.

Mary, a devout Catholic, was determined to crush the Protestant faith in which Elizabeth had been educated, and she ordered that everyone attend Catholic Mass; Elizabeth had to outwardly conform.

Mary's initial popularity ebbed away in when she announced plans to marry Philip of Spain , the son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and an active Catholic.

In January and February , Wyatt's rebellion broke out; it was soon suppressed. Elizabeth fervently protested her innocence.

Mary's closest confidant, Charles V's ambassador Simon Renard , argued that her throne would never be safe while Elizabeth lived; and the Chancellor, Stephen Gardiner , worked to have Elizabeth put on trial.

Instead, on 22 May, Elizabeth was moved from the Tower to Woodstock , where she was to spend almost a year under house arrest in the charge of Sir Henry Bedingfield.

Crowds cheered her all along the way. On 17 April , Elizabeth was recalled to court to attend the final stages of Mary's apparent pregnancy.

If Mary and her child died, Elizabeth would become queen. If, on the other hand, Mary gave birth to a healthy child, Elizabeth's chances of becoming queen would recede sharply.

When it became clear that Mary was not pregnant, no one believed any longer that she could have a child. King Philip, who ascended the Spanish throne in , acknowledged the new political reality and cultivated his sister-in-law.

She was a better ally than the chief alternative, Mary, Queen of Scots , who had grown up in France and was betrothed to the Dauphin of France.

By October , Elizabeth was already making plans for her government. On 6 November, Mary recognised Elizabeth as her heir. Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25, and declared her intentions to her council and other peers who had come to Hatfield to swear allegiance.

The speech contains the first record of her adoption of the medieval political theology of the sovereign's "two bodies": the body natural and the body politic : [45].

My lords, the law of nature moves me to sorrow for my sister; the burden that is fallen upon me makes me amazed, and yet, considering I am God's creature, ordained to obey His appointment, I will thereto yield, desiring from the bottom of my heart that I may have assistance of His grace to be the minister of His heavenly will in this office now committed to me.

And as I am but one body naturally considered, though by His permission a body politic to govern, so shall I desire you all I mean to direct all my actions by good advice and counsel.

As her triumphal progress wound through the city on the eve of the coronation ceremony , she was welcomed wholeheartedly by the citizens and greeted by orations and pageants, most with a strong Protestant flavour.

Elizabeth's open and gracious responses endeared her to the spectators, who were "wonderfully ravished". She was then presented for the people's acceptance, amidst a deafening noise of organs, fifes, trumpets, drums, and bells.

Elizabeth's personal religious convictions have been much debated by scholars. She was a Protestant, but kept Catholic symbols such as the crucifix , and downplayed the role of sermons in defiance of a key Protestant belief.

In terms of public policy she favoured pragmatism in dealing with religious matters. The question of her legitimacy was a key concern: although she was technically illegitimate under both Protestant and Catholic law, her retroactively-declared illegitimacy under the English church was not a serious bar compared to having never been legitimate as the Catholics claimed she was.

For this reason alone, it was never in serious doubt that Elizabeth would embrace Protestantism. Elizabeth and her advisers perceived the threat of a Catholic crusade against heretical England.

Elizabeth therefore sought a Protestant solution that would not offend Catholics too greatly while addressing the desires of English Protestants; she would not tolerate the more radical Puritans though, who were pushing for far-reaching reforms.

The House of Commons backed the proposals strongly, but the bill of supremacy met opposition in the House of Lords , particularly from the bishops.

Elizabeth was fortunate that many bishoprics were vacant at the time, including the Archbishopric of Canterbury. Nevertheless, Elizabeth was forced to accept the title of Supreme Governor of the Church of England rather than the more contentious title of Supreme Head , which many thought unacceptable for a woman to bear.

The new Act of Supremacy became law on 8 May All public officials were to swear an oath of loyalty to the monarch as the supreme governor or risk disqualification from office; the heresy laws were repealed, to avoid a repeat of the persecution of dissenters practised by Mary.

At the same time, a new Act of Uniformity was passed, which made attendance at church and the use of an adapted version of the Book of Common Prayer compulsory, though the penalties for recusancy , or failure to attend and conform, were not extreme.

From the start of Elizabeth's reign, it was expected that she would marry and the question arose to whom. Although she received many offers for her hand, she never married and was childless; the reasons for this are not clear.

Historians have speculated that Thomas Seymour had put her off sexual relationships. Her last courtship was with Francis, Duke of Anjou , 22 years her junior.

While risking possible loss of power like her sister, who played into the hands of King Philip II of Spain , marriage offered the chance of an heir.

In the spring of , it became evident that Elizabeth was in love with her childhood friend Robert Dudley.

However, William Cecil, Nicholas Throckmorton , and some conservative peers made their disapproval unmistakably clear. Among other marriage candidates being considered for the queen, Robert Dudley continued to be regarded as a possible candidate for nearly another decade.

He finally remarried in , to which the queen reacted with repeated scenes of displeasure and lifelong hatred towards his wife, Lettice Knollys.

After Elizabeth's own death, a note from him was found among her most personal belongings, marked "his last letter" in her handwriting.

Marriage negotiations constituted a key element in Elizabeth's foreign policy. By , relations with the Habsburgs had deteriorated.

In , Elizabeth told an imperial envoy: "If I follow the inclination of my nature, it is this: beggar-woman and single, far rather than queen and married".

Members urged the queen to marry or nominate an heir, to prevent a civil war upon her death. She refused to do either. In April she prorogued the Parliament, which did not reconvene until she needed its support to raise taxes in I will never break the word of a prince spoken in public place, for my honour's sake.

And therefore I say again, I will marry as soon as I can conveniently, if God take not him away with whom I mind to marry, or myself, or else some other great let happen.

By , senior figures in the government privately accepted that Elizabeth would never marry or name a successor.

William Cecil was already seeking solutions to the succession problem. Elizabeth's unmarried status inspired a cult of virginity related to that of the Virgin Mary.

In poetry and portraiture, she was depicted as a virgin or a goddess or both, not as a normal woman. Ultimately, Elizabeth would insist she was married to her kingdom and subjects, under divine protection.

In , she spoke of "all my husbands, my good people". Elizabeth's first policy toward Scotland was to oppose the French presence there.

Mary boasted being "the nearest kinswoman she hath". In Elizabeth proposed her own suitor, Robert Dudley, as a husband for Mary, without asking either of the two people concerned.

Both proved unenthusiastic, [95] and in Mary married Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley , who carried his own claim to the English throne.

The marriage was the first of a series of errors of judgement by Mary that handed the victory to the Scottish Protestants and to Elizabeth.

Darnley quickly became unpopular and was murdered in February by conspirators almost certainly led by James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell.

Shortly afterwards, on 15 May , Mary married Bothwell, arousing suspicions that she had been party to the murder of her husband.

Elizabeth confronted Mary about the marriage, writing to her:. How could a worse choice be made for your honour than in such haste to marry such a subject, who besides other and notorious lacks, public fame has charged with the murder of your late husband, besides the touching of yourself also in some part, though we trust in that behalf falsely.

These events led rapidly to Mary's defeat and imprisonment in Loch Leven Castle. The Scottish lords forced her to abdicate in favour of her son James VI , who had been born in June James was taken to Stirling Castle to be raised as a Protestant.

Mary escaped from Loch Leven in but after another defeat fled across the border into England, where she had once been assured of support from Elizabeth.

Elizabeth's first instinct was to restore her fellow monarch; but she and her council instead chose to play safe.

Rather than risk returning Mary to Scotland with an English army or sending her to France and the Catholic enemies of England, they detained her in England, where she was imprisoned for the next nineteen years.

Mary was soon the focus for rebellion. In there was a major Catholic rising in the North ; the goal was to free Mary, marry her to Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk , and put her on the English throne.

Regnans in Excelsis gave English Catholics a strong incentive to look to Mary Stuart as the legitimate sovereign of England. Mary may not have been told of every Catholic plot to put her on the English throne, but from the Ridolfi Plot of which caused Mary's suitor, the Duke of Norfolk, to lose his head to the Babington Plot of , Elizabeth's spymaster Sir Francis Walsingham and the royal council keenly assembled a case against her.

By late , she had been persuaded to sanction her trial and execution on the evidence of letters written during the Babington Plot.

The sincerity of Elizabeth's remorse and whether or not she wanted to delay the warrant have been called into question both by her contemporaries and later historians.

Elizabeth's foreign policy was largely defensive. The exception was the English occupation of Le Havre from October to June , which ended in failure when Elizabeth's Huguenot allies joined with the Catholics to retake the port.

An element of piracy and self-enrichment drove Elizabethan seafarers, over whom the queen had little control.

After the occupation and loss of Le Havre in —, Elizabeth avoided military expeditions on the continent until , when she sent an English army to aid the Protestant Dutch rebels against Philip II.

It also extended Spanish influence along the channel coast of France, where the Catholic League was strong, and exposed England to invasion.

The outcome was the Treaty of Nonsuch of August , in which Elizabeth promised military support to the Dutch. The expedition was led by her former suitor, the Earl of Leicester.

Elizabeth from the start did not really back this course of action. Her strategy, to support the Dutch on the surface with an English army, while beginning secret peace talks with Spain within days of Leicester's arrival in Holland, [] had necessarily to be at odds with Leicester's, who wanted and was expected by the Dutch to fight an active campaign.

Elizabeth, on the other hand, wanted him "to avoid at all costs any decisive action with the enemy". Elizabeth saw this as a Dutch ploy to force her to accept sovereignty over the Netherlands, [] which so far she had always declined.

She wrote to Leicester:. We could never have imagined had we not seen it fall out in experience that a man raised up by ourself and extraordinarily favoured by us, above any other subject of this land, would have in so contemptible a sort broken our commandment in a cause that so greatly touches us in honour And therefore our express pleasure and commandment is that, all delays and excuses laid apart, you do presently upon the duty of your allegiance obey and fulfill whatsoever the bearer hereof shall direct you to do in our name.

Whereof fail you not, as you will answer the contrary at your utmost peril. Elizabeth's "commandment" was that her emissary read out her letters of disapproval publicly before the Dutch Council of State, Leicester having to stand nearby.

The military campaign was severely hampered by Elizabeth's repeated refusals to send promised funds for her starving soldiers. Her unwillingness to commit herself to the cause, Leicester's own shortcomings as a political and military leader, and the faction-ridden and chaotic situation of Dutch politics led to the failure of the campaign.

Meanwhile, Sir Francis Drake had undertaken a major voyage against Spanish ports and ships in the Caribbean in and On 12 July , the Spanish Armada , a great fleet of ships, set sail for the channel, planning to ferry a Spanish invasion force under the Duke of Parma to the coast of southeast England from the Netherlands.

A combination of miscalculation, [] misfortune, and an attack of English fire ships on 29 July off Gravelines , which dispersed the Spanish ships to the northeast, defeated the Armada.

He invited Elizabeth to inspect her troops at Tilbury in Essex on 8 August. Wearing a silver breastplate over a white velvet dress, she addressed them in one of her most famous speeches :.

My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourself to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but I assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any Prince of Europe should dare to invade the borders of my realm.

When no invasion came, the nation rejoiced. Elizabeth's procession to a thanksgiving service at St Paul's Cathedral rivalled that of her coronation as a spectacle.

The English took their delivery as a symbol of God's favour and of the nation's inviolability under a virgin queen. If the late queen would have believed her men of war as she did her scribes, we had in her time beaten that great empire in pieces and made their kings of figs and oranges as in old times.

But her Majesty did all by halves, and by petty invasions taught the Spaniard how to defend himself, and to see his own weakness.

Though some historians have criticised Elizabeth on similar grounds, [] Raleigh's verdict has more often been judged unfair.

Elizabeth had good reason not to place too much trust in her commanders, who once in action tended, as she put it herself, "to be transported with an haviour of vainglory".

The English fleet suffered a catastrophic defeat with 11,—15, killed, wounded or died of disease [] [] [] and 40 ships sunk or captured.

It was her first venture into France since the retreat from Le Havre in Henry's succession was strongly contested by the Catholic League and by Philip II, and Elizabeth feared a Spanish takeover of the channel ports.

The subsequent English campaigns in France, however, were disorganised and ineffective. He withdrew in disarray in December , having lost half his troops.

In , the campaign of John Norreys , who led 3, men to Brittany , was even more of a disaster. As for all such expeditions, Elizabeth was unwilling to invest in the supplies and reinforcements requested by the commanders.

Norreys left for London to plead in person for more support. In his absence, a Catholic League army almost destroyed the remains of his army at Craon , north-west France, in May The result was just as dismal.

Essex accomplished nothing and returned home in January Henry abandoned the siege in April. Although Ireland was one of her two kingdoms, Elizabeth faced a hostile, and in places virtually autonomous, [] Irish population that adhered to Catholicism and was willing to defy her authority and plot with her enemies.

Her policy there was to grant land to her courtiers and prevent the rebels from giving Spain a base from which to attack England.

During a revolt in Munster led by Gerald FitzGerald, 15th Earl of Desmond , in , an estimated 30, Irish people starved to death.

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