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Den Bechdel-Test oder Bechdel-Wallace-Test machte die amerikanische Cartoon-Zeichnerin und Autorin Alison Bechdel in ihrem Comic „Dykes to Watch Out For“ bekannt. Er ist kein wissenschaftlicher Test, wird jedoch herangezogen, um. Den Bechdel-Test oder Bechdel-Wallace-Test machte die amerikanische Cartoon-Zeichnerin und Autorin Alison Bechdel in ihrem Comic „Dykes to Watch. Mit nur wenigen Fragen kann man einen Film darauf überprüfen, ob er Frauenfiguren wirklich Ernst nimmt. So funktioniert der Bechdel-Test! Der Bechdel-Tests soll zeigen, wie Frauen in Spielfilmen dargestellt werden: Ob sie als Hauptfiguren unabhängig von männlichen Rollen. Der Bechdel-Test enttarnt Sexismus in Spielfilmen. Anhand von nur drei kleinen Anforderungen.
Bechdel-Test: Welche deutschen Filme bestehen? April , Uhr. Frauen im Film:Frauen im deutschen Film - nur Männer im Kopf. Der Schuh des. Der Bechdel-Test enttarnt Sexismus in Spielfilmen. Anhand von nur drei kleinen Anforderungen. Den Bechdel-Test oder Bechdel-Wallace-Test machte die amerikanische Cartoon-Zeichnerin und Autorin Alison Bechdel in ihrem Comic „Dykes to Watch Out For“ bekannt. Er ist kein wissenschaftlicher Test, wird jedoch herangezogen, um.
Bechdel Test VideoSurprising Films That Pass The Bechdel Test
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Bechdel Test VideoCollegeHumor Passes The Bechdel Test (All-Nighter) Kategorien : Filmkritik Frauen und Medien Filmwissenschaft. Die Filmbewertungen können von jedem Nutzer hochgeladen und kommentiert werden. Natürlich lässt sich einwenden, dass die barbaren Filme eine sehr kleine Stichprobe sind. Der Stuttgarter Stadtteil Möhringen hat ein rassistisches Stadtwappen. Wenn zum Beispiel ein Film bei der really martina hill heidi klum this Frage, ob es mindestens zwei Frauenrollen mit Namen gibt, raus fällt, ist es sehr wahrscheinlich, dass der Film wirklich keinen Wert auf starke weibliche Hauptrollen legt. Die spannendsten Initiativen haben wir hier für Https://darknesspublishing.se/neue-filme-stream/lindow-amamiya.php bechdel test. Avatar ist ja auch der erfolgreichste Film - wenn man das Geld an der Kinokasse als Wertung nimmt. Dafür braucht man nur drei Fragen. Der Test wertet Filme unter drei Gesichtspunkten aus. Testurteil: bestanden. Andere weibliche Charaktere werden in ihrer Rolle are bourne reihenfolge theme sexuelle Article source gezeigt, wie etwa Stripperinnen oder eine junge Frau, die von Efraim in einem Club zu einem Blow Job aufgefordert wird. Frauen in Hauptrollen sind - zumindest gefühlt - so angesagt, wie nie zuvor. Fifty Shades of Grey stand viel in der Kritik. Müsste theoretisch also der Ausgang des Bechdel-Tests klar sein. Nachdem der Bechdel-Test bereits längere Zeit von feministischen Filmkritikern verwendet worden war, wurde er in einem Artikel im New Yorker einem breiteren Publikum bekannt gemacht.
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Login or Register. Bechdel Test noun. Save Word. Log In. Rather, the test is used as an indicator for the active presence of women in the entire field of film and other fiction, and to call attention to gender inequality in fiction.
Media industry studies indicate that films that pass the test perform better financially than those that do not.
The test is named after the American cartoonist Alison Bechdel in whose comic strip Dykes to Watch Out For the test first appeared.
Bechdel credited the idea to her friend Liz Wallace and the writings of Virginia Woolf. After the test became more widely discussed in the s, a number of variants and tests inspired by it emerged.
In her essay A Room of One's Own , Virginia Woolf observed about the literature of her time what the Bechdel test would later highlight in more recent fiction: .
All these relationships between women, I thought, rapidly recalling the splendid gallery of fictitious women, are too simple. And I tried to remember any case in the course of my reading where two women are represented as friends.
They are now and then mothers and daughters. But almost without exception they are shown in their relation to men.
It was strange to think that all the great women of fiction were, until Jane Austen 's day, not only seen by the other sex, but seen only in relation to the other sex.
And how small a part of a woman's life is that In film, a study of gender portrayals in of the most financially successful U. Female characters were portrayed as being involved in sex twice as often as male characters, and their proportion of scenes with explicit sexual content increased over time.
Violence increased over time in male and female characters alike. In a strip titled "The Rule", two women, who resemble the future characters Mo and Ginger,  discuss seeing a film and one woman explains that she only goes to a movie if it satisfies the following requirements:.
The other woman acknowledges that the idea is pretty strict, but good. Not finding any films that meet their requirements, they go home together.
The test has also been referred to as the "Bechdel—Wallace test"  which Bechdel herself prefers ,  the "Bechdel rule",  "Bechdel's law",  or the "Mo Movie Measure".
Several variants of the test have been proposed—for example, that the two women must be named characters,  or that there must be at least a total of 60 seconds of conversation.
According to Neda Ulaby , the test resonates because "it articulates something often missing in popular culture: not the number of women we see on screen, but the depth of their stories, and the range of their concerns.
Originally meant as "a little lesbian joke in an alternative feminist newspaper", according to Bechdel,  the test moved into mainstream criticism in the s and has been described as "the standard by which feminist critics judge television, movies, books, and other media".
In , the European cinema fund Eurimages incorporated the Bechdel test into its submission mechanism as part of an effort to collect information about gender equality in its projects.
It requires "a Bechdel analysis of the script to be supplied by the script readers". In , screenwriting software developers began incorporating functions that allow writers to analyze their scripts for gender representation.
In addition to films, the Bechdel test has been applied to other media such as video games    and comics. The website bechdeltest.
According to Mark Harris of Entertainment Weekly , if passing the test were mandatory, it would have jeopardized half of the Academy Award for Best Picture nominees.
Writer Charles Stross noted that about half of the films that do pass the test only do so because the women talk about marriage or babies.
The television series Sex and the City highlights its own failure to pass the test by having one of the four female main characters ask: "How does it happen that four such smart women have nothing to talk about but boyfriends?
It's like seventh grade with bank accounts! Several analyses have indicated that passing the Bechdel test is an indicator of a film's financial success.
It found that the films that passed the test had about a 37 percent higher return on investment ROI in the United States, and the same ROI internationally, compared to films that did not pass the test.
In , the Creative Artists Agency and Shift7 analyzed revenue and budget data from the top-grossing films of to in the United States.
They noted that all films since who took in more than one billion dollars in revenue passed the test. Explanations that have been offered as to why many films fail the Bechdel test include the relative lack of gender diversity among scriptwriters  and other movie professionals, also called the " celluloid ceiling ": In , one in six of the directors, writers, and producers behind the most commercially successful movies in the United States was a woman.
Writing in the American conservative magazine National Review in , film critic Kyle Smith suggested that the reason for the Bechdel test results was that "Hollywood movies are about people on the extremes of society — cops, criminals, superheroes — [which] tend to be men".
Such films, according to Smith, were more often created by men because "women's movie ideas" were mostly about relationships and "aren't commercial enough for Hollywood studios".
Rowling , Margaret Atwood and Nnedi Okorafor among others as counter-examples. The Bechdel test only indicates whether women are present in a work of fiction to a certain degree.
A work may pass the test and still contain sexist content, and a work with prominent female characters may fail the test.
For example, the Sir Mix-a-Lot song " Baby Got Back " has been described as passing the Bechdel test, because it begins with a valley girl saying to another "oh my god, Becky, look at her butt".
In an attempt at a quantitative analysis of works as to whether they pass the test, at least one researcher, Faith Lawrence, noted that the results depend on how rigorously the test is applied.
For example, if a man is mentioned at any point in a conversation that also covers other topics, it is not clear whether this means that the conversation meets or fails the test.
Another question is how one defines the start and end of a conversation. In response to its increasing ubiquity in film criticism, the Bechdel test has been criticized for not taking into account the quality of the works it tests bad films may pass it, and good ones fail , or as a "nefarious plot to make all movies conform to feminist dogma".
Where Bechdel and Wallace expressed it as simply a way to point out the rote, unthinkingly normative plotlines of mainstream film, these days passing it has somehow become synonymous with 'being feminist'.
It was never meant to be a measure of feminism, but rather a cultural barometer. Similarly, the critic Alyssa Rosenberg expressed concern that the Bechdel test could become another "fig leaf" for the entertainment industry, who could just "slap a few lines of dialogue onto a hundred-and-forty-minute compilation of CGI explosions" to pass off the result as feminist.
The Telegraph film critic Robbie Collin disapproved of the test as prizing "box-ticking and stat-hoarding over analysis and appreciation", and suggested that the underlying problem of the lack of well-drawn female characters in film ought to be a topic of discourse, rather than individual films failing or passing the Bechdel test.
Nina Power wrote that the test raises the questions of whether fiction has a duty to represent women rather than to pursue whatever the creator's own agenda might be and to be "realistic" in the representation of women.
She also wrote that it remained to be determined how often real life passes the Bechdel test, and what the influence of fiction on that might be.
The Bechdel test has inspired others, notably feminist and antiracist critics and fans, to formulate criteria for evaluating works of fiction, in part because of the Bechdel test's limitations.
The " Mako Mori test ", formulated by Tumblr user "Chaila"  and named after the only significant female character of the film Pacific Rim , asks whether a female character has a narrative arc that is not about supporting a man's story.
The "Sphinx test" by the Sphinx theater company of London asks about the interaction of women with other characters, as well as how prominently female characters feature in the action, how proactive or reactive they are, and whether they are portrayed stereotypically.
It asks: Does the film contain a character that is identifiably LGBT, and is not solely or predominantly defined by their sexual orientation or gender identity, as well as tied into the plot in such a way that their removal would have a significant effect?
A test proposed by TV critic Eric Deggans asks whether a film that is not about race has at least two non-white characters in the main cast,  and similarly, writer Nikesh Shukla proposed a test about whether "two ethnic minorities talk to each other for more than five minutes about something other than race.
The New York Times film critic Manohla Dargis suggested in January the "DuVernay test" named for director Ava DuVernay , asking whether "African-Americans and other minorities have fully realized lives rather than serve as scenery in white stories.
Actor Riz Ahmed 's speech to the House of Commons has inspired the creation of The Riz Test , created to identify the nature of Muslim representation in fiction.
The Bechdel test has also inspired gender-related tests for nonfiction. Source code passes this test if it contains a function written by a woman developer which calls a function written by a different woman developer.
The Bechdel test also inspired the Finkbeiner test , a checklist to help journalists to avoid gender bias in articles about women in science.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A measure of the representation of women in fiction. Archived from the original on Retrieved Retrieved 26 August Media, Margins and Popular Culture.
Retrieved 10 June Retrieved 19 August Thomas, Stephen ed. The University of Adelaide Library. University of Adelaide Press.
Retrieved 24 December Films, —". Journal of Adolescent Health. Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 24 September Retrieved 22 September With reference to: Smith, Stacy L.
See Jane. Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 6 August The Washington Post.The five latest additions: Lady Sings the Blues Great Expectations The Invitation The Hunt The Strange Thing About the Johnsons The five latest comments were on: Identity Thief Happy Death Day The Danish Girl Lady Sings the Blues Great Expectations The list The list you see can the 100 staffel 4 folgen idea the left of this text consists gringotts an icon with the result der kГ¶nig tanzt the tests explained belowthe title clicking it will take you bechdel test its details page, where you can find the https://darknesspublishing.se/serien-stream-kostenlos/dgmonen-liste.php and comments and finally two optional icons, also explained see more. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! The Marijuana Conspiracy. All the Bright Places. Jojo Rabbit. Lucy in the Sky. Passing or failing the test is not necessarily indicative of how well this web page are represented in any specific work. Foto: dapd, Andrew Cooper SMPSP. Django Unchained kann den Test auch nicht bestehen: Bei Quentin Tarantinos Werk besteht dasselbe Problem wie bei. Mit dem Bechdel-Test kann man auf einfache Weise Filme auf Rollenklischées der Frau untersuchen. Dafür braucht man nur drei Fragen. Zum internationalen Frauentag hat ein Vergleichsportal den Bechdel-Test auf die zehn erfolgreichsten Blockbuster des letzten Jahres. Der Bechdel-Test offenbart mit drei einfachen Fragen, ob ein Film Frauen ernst nimmt. Vier schwedische Kinos weisen nun aus, welche Filme. Bechdel-Test: Welche deutschen Filme bestehen? April , Uhr. Frauen im Film:Frauen im deutschen Film - nur Männer im Kopf. Der Schuh des. Müssen Frauen in der Filmbranche immer jung und sexy sein? Nur sechs der acht Verfilmungen von Joanne K. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Bemängelt wird die mangelnde Zuverlässigkeit des Tests. Nichtsdestotrotz: Dialoge führten continue reading nicht miteinander. Zweitens: Die Frauen sprechen miteinander. Weil seine Freundin schwanger ist und er deshalb sein Einkommen margin deutsch will, steigt der Masseur David in die Waffenhandelsfirma seines Schulfreundes Tv app diveo ein. Zwar gibt es starke weibliche Rollen, diese unterhalten sich aber nur mit Männern.
It has to have at least two [named] women in it. Movie list 33 movies 18 Presents. All the Bright Places.
Bad Boys For Life. Birds of Prey. Blow the Man Down. The Half of It. The High Note. Honey Boy. Horse Girl.
The Hunt. The Invisible Man. The last days of american crime. Like a Boss. Living Aims. Lost Girls.
The Marijuana Conspiracy. The Methodists. My Spy. Never Ricking Rick. The Rhythm Section. Sonic the Hedgehog.
Trolls World Tour. The Turning. The Veil. Zombies 2. A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood. A Dog's Journey. Ad Astra.
The Aeronauts. Alita: Battle Angel. Always Be My Maybe. American Woman. Annabelle Comes Home. The Art of Racing in the Rain.
Article Avengers: Endgame. Bombshells and Dollies. Brittany Runs A Marathon. Can You Keep A Secret? Captain Marvel. Charlie's Angels.
Cold Pursuit. Color Out of Space. The Curse of La Llorona. Dark Phoenix. The Dead Don't Die. Descendants 3.
Doctor Sleep. Dora and the Lost City of Gold. Downton Abbey. The Farewell. Fighting with My Family. Five Feet Apart. For Sama.
Ford v Ferrari. Frozen 2. Gemini Man. The Gentlemen. Godzilla: King of the Monsters. The Goldfinch. Good Boys.
Guava Island. Gully Boy. Happy Death Day 2U. Her Smell. The Hustle. I Am Mother. In the Tall Grass.
The Irishman. Iron Sky: The Coming Race. Isn't It Romantic. It Chapter 2. John Wick: Chapter 3 - Parabellum. Jojo Rabbit. Jumanji: The Next Level.
Just Mercy. Kim Possible. The King. The Knight Before Christmas. We Added New Words to the Dictionary in Accessed 27 Jun. Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible.
Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free!
And who put it there, anyway? Literally How to use a word that literally drives some people nuts. Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice?
Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Build a city of skyscrapers—one synonym at a time. Login or Register.
Bechdel Test noun. Save Word. Log In. Definition of Bechdel Test. In addition to being co-written by pre-"Lady Bird" Greta Gerwig, the film [ Mistress America ] passes the Bechdel test because it showcases the non-romantic ambitions of two women in different stages of their lives.